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August 2015
Volume 1 Issue 1
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Editorial
Nanotechnology for Biomarkers or Biomarkers for Nanotechnology in Medical Approaches: What Can We Anticipate?

Michele Munk Pereira*

In recent years, there has been excitement about the ability to predict the future disease risk factor status. For this purpose, biomarkers have been used in pre-clinical research and clinical diagnosis. The National Institute of Health Biomarkers Definitions Working Group has defined a biomarker as a measurable indicator of some normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses and toxicological effects of a therapeutic intervention [1]. Biomarkers can be of various molecular origins, including nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), protein (enzymes or antibodies), or a substance introduced into the body to assess how an organ, tissue, or system is functioning.

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Research Article
The Level of Regulatory T Lymphocytes may be Correlated with Outcomes in Early Sepsis

Tsai-Hsia Hong, Chin-Hao Chang, Jo-Wei Shen, Wen-Je Ko, Chun-Ta Huang, Sun-Liang Yu, Yih-Sharng Chen*

Severe sepsis is associated with high mortality; however, the mortality of the secondary infection after severe sepsis is often higher than that of primary infection. A weaker pro-inflammatory response was found in survivors in primary inflection. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mid-term survivors, late death due to the secondary infection, were significantly higher than those in long-term survivors. Our hypothesis is that regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress adaptive immune response in non-survivors and mid-term survivors.

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Editorial
Biomarkers: Towards the Dream of Personalized Medicine

Morello Giovanna, Gentile Giulia, Cavallaro Sebastiano*

Since the completion of the Human Genome Project in the early 2000’s, genome-wide high-throughput technologies have transformed the biomedical research field. The growing quantity of information produced is collected in specific public repositories and is available for the scientific community, however only few of this “OMICS” information have been transferred to the patient bedside.

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Opinion Manuscript

Why Should we Start Biomarker Study in Urine?

Youhe Gao*

It is cruel that winner takes all. It happens in lots of games. It may happen in biomarker field too. It may not happen yet,because it has been hard to find any significant changes in blood, which can be used as candidate biomarkers. In urine it is not difficult to find changes, even though not all the changes are associated with the targeted pathophysiological condition. If we introduce a change into the blood, the homeostatic mechanisms will try hard to remove it from the blood. The change can then go to urine, breath, sweat and bile. Those are all greater places to find biomarker than blood. Urine is free from contamination, it is the ideal place to find biomarkers.

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Review Article

Alopecia Areata: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Falto-Aizpurua Leyre A., Cosme-Blanco Wilfredo, Wikramanayake Tongyu C., DelCanto Gina M., Jimenez Joaquin J.*

Alopecia areata is a type of non-scarring hair loss resulting from an autoimmune response towards the hair follicle, with genetic and environmental factors playing significant roles. It has a chronic, relapsing course and is a frequent complaint encountered in the dermatologic practice. However, the treatment options currently available have variable efficacy, and none are curative. In order to provide better treatment options, extensive research on the disease pathophysiology is being performed. In this comprehensive review article, we discuss the disease clinical presentation, pathophysiology, relevant animal models and current and potential treatment options for further investigation.

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Short Commentary

Biomarkers for the Neglected Chagas Disease: How Remarkable!

Rosa T. Pinho, Paulo RZ. Antas*

Our purpose here is to briefly comment on the current state and future trends in biomarkers for human Chagas disease. A variety of biomarkers, reflecting exposure to (asymptomatic carriers) and early effects of pathogen-related disease (clinically relevant patients), as well as individual genetic susceptibility, have become available with the intent to apply these population-based studies for Chagas disease. The data presented here reflect the lessons learned so far and the real challenges that still lie ahead to empower biomarkers to be used reliably in risk assessment for this disease.

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Research Article

In Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinomas, 18f-Fdg Suvmax Values are Independent of P63 Immunohistochemical Expression

Ruibal A, Aguiar P, Pombo M, Dominguez I, Gude F, Abdukader I, Herranz M

P63 is a member of p53 family, mapping to 3q27 and it is deregulated in a broader range of tumors. It is expressed in benign bronchial stem cells, in neoplastic cells with either squamous differentiation or squamous differentiating potential, as well as in a subpopulation of adenocarcinomas. It is up-regulated in the early phase of epithelial abnormality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and also is involved in the control of maspin expression in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC), a member of the serpin family of protease inhibitors that inhibits tumor growth and suppresses metastasis in some malignancies, including lung cancer.

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