Volume 2 Issue 1
A Five-Gene Signature Inferred from Transcriptome Profiling of Homologous Recombination-Mediated DNA Repair Predicts Clinical Outcome of Patients with Cancer
Shujiao Huang, Wei Tu, Zhenlin Ju, Graham M. Poage, Casey R. Cai, Abenaa Brewster, Shiaw-Yih Lin, Gordon B. Mills, Hua Wang, Guang Peng*
To prevent genomic instability due to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), cells have evolved to repair DSBs in an error-free manner through the homologous recombination (HR) mechanism. Defective HR repair plays a causative role in the development of multiple human cancers, but defective HR repair can also sensitize cancer cells to the therapeutic effects of radiation therapy as well as to chemotherapy drugs that cause DSBs and importantly to the emerging class of PARP inhibitors (PARPi). As the HR pathway consists of a complex protein network, it has been challenging to predict patient outcomes or response to therapy by assessing HR repair status in tumors by interrogating genetic alterations of individual components in this network.
Urinary Metabolomics Profile of Genetically Obese Rats Using Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
Jennifer Grant, Kayla Whitehurst, Carla G. Taylor, Peter Zahradka and Michel Aliani*
As the prevalence of obesity continues to increase further research investigating the body’s metabolic response to increased adiposity can help us better understand the disease and identify biomarkers that pave way for the development of new prevention and treatment strategies. The urinary metabolite profile can provide detailed information regarding the metabolic network at any disease stage and may be useful for investigating the effect of obesity on water-soluble metabolite profiles in genetically obese rats using a nontargeted metabolomics approach
A Composite Biomarker Panel as a Highly Informative and Reliable Tool for Predicting Septic Complications
Zemskov VM, Alekseev AA, Gnatenko DA, Kozlova MN, Shishkina NS, Zemskov AM, Zhegalova IV, Bleykhman DA, Bahov NI, Suchkov SV
Due to growing antibiotic resistance and poor early diagnosis, sepsis remains a formidable infectious complication of many diseases, often leading to death. Immune quantitative formulas for prediction and septic complications diagnosis for burned patients have been developed and included as follow: systemic lymphocytes, natural killers, HLA-DR+ monocytes, IgG deficiency, excessive activation of leukocyte intoxication index (LII), CD64+ of granulocytes and shift of hematologic state to the left. They allow prediction of septic complication of burn disease from several days to two weeks before establishing disease.
miRNA Roles: Sequence Analyses of Oncogenic and Tumor Suppressive miRNAs
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (∼25 nucleotides) noncoding RNA molecules thought to play an important role in regulating gene expression. Knowledge of the biological functions of most miRNAs is still limited, but these miRNAs are thought to regulate the gene expression in various diseases. In this paper the relations between the sequences of cancer-related miRNAs (both oncogenic and tumor suppressive) and those of control miRNAs in human beings are examined from the viewpoint of nucleotide frequencies at individual positions.
Association between the 8-OHdG Level in Placental/Umbilical Cord Blood and Maternal/Neonatal Characteristics at Full-Term Birth
Satoko Ebina, Masaru Yamaguchi, Ikuo Kashiwakura*
Oxidative stress is defined as a disturbance in the prooxidant/ antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Oxygen is one of the most important elements required to sustain life. However, the oxidizing potential of oxygen can result in toxic biological effects. Some of the oxygen taken up by the body during respiration is used to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) during energy metabolism or defense against pathogens. ROS may induce oxidative damage to DNA and are associated with various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hypertension and atherosclerosis.